Senior Scholar Fernando J. Cardim de Carvalho is emeritus professor of economics at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the former chairman of the Brazilian National Association of Graduate Schools in Economics (ANPEC). He has worked as a consultant to both public institutions and financial industry associations, including the Central Bank of Brazil, the Brazilian National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES), the Central Statistical Office of Brazil (IBGE), and the National Association of Financial Institutions of Brazil (Anbima); as well as NGOs such as IBASE (Brazil) and Action Aid USA. Cardim de Carvalho’s work has been published in, among other journals, the Cambridge Journal of Economics, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, International Journal of Political Economy, Intervention, and Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, and Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, of which he is associate editor. He is the author of Mr Keynes and the Post Keynesians (Edward Elgar, 1992) and Liquidity Preference and Monetary Economies (Routledge, 2105), and co-author of Economia monetária e financeira: Teoria e prática (3rd ed., Elsevier, 2015). He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Rutgers University.