Policy Note 2012/8 | July 2012
Euroland's Original Sin
From the very start, the European Monetary Union (EMU) was set up to fail. The host of problems we are now witnessing, from the solvency crises on the periphery to the bank runs in Spain, Greece, and Italy, were built into the very structure of the EMU and its banking system. Policymakers have admittedly responded to these various emergencies with an uninspiring mix of delaying tactics and self-destructive policy blunders, but the most fundamental mistake of all occurred well before the buildup to the current crisis. What we are witnessing today are the results of a design flaw. When individual nations like Greece or Italy joined the EMU, they essentially adopted a foreign currency—the euro—but retained responsibility for their nation’s fiscal policy. This attempted separation of fiscal policy from a sovereign currency is the fatal defect that is tearing the eurozone apart.
Central bank policy Deficits Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) European Central Bank (ECB) European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) European Stability Mechanism (ESM) Eurozone Eurozone debt crisis Greece Ireland Italy Maastricht Treaty Modern Monetary Theory Spain TARGET2